This article outlines the various methods of accessing and using R in Displayr. For a guided walk through of how to do this and specific examples you can also review our Using R in Displayr Video Series. To jump to a particular topic click on the section link below:

## Creating and Modifying

There are a number of ways to access R from within Displayr:

- Entering R code directly into a
**Calculation**. - Creating an
**R Variable**. - Creating a new
**Data Set**using R*.* - Accessing pre-written R code using menus and forms. This is how most advanced analyses are conducted in Displayr (e.g., regression, principal components analysis). This is referred to as
**Standard R**.

**Automatic updating **- Any R code that is created via *Calculations*, *Standard R*, or *QScripts *is set to automatically update when the inputs change (e.g., if the input data changes, if a new data file is created, or if other options are changed).

### 1. Calculations

A Calculation is an output in a Document, created as follows:

**Calculation > Custom Code >**create box on page.- Enter code written in the
*R Language*under**R CODE**. This code can be used to create tables, visualizations or any other calculations. - Displayr will render various outputs automatically -- HTML will get processed as HTML, Matrices and tables will get rendered to look like built-in tables, and more.
- If you would like to see the terminal view of the R CODE you are running, check the
**Properties > OUTPUT > Show raw R output**checkbox. This can be very useful when troubleshooting your code.

Calculations can also contain custom functions that can be referenced from other R CODE. You can *Hide* calculations to not export them to the final *Dashboard* or *Report*.

### 2. R Variables

An *R Variable* is a variable in a Data Set, that uses an R calculation to create the values. You can create them one at a time (see How to Create a Custom R Text Variable and How to Create a Custom Numeric R Variable) or in batches (see How to Create Multiple R Variables).

Because you cannot preview the results from your R code when creating a variable, many times it is best to first create the code in a **Calculation** to confirm the results are as expected. Then you can copy it over to the variable's R CODE.

### 3. R Data Sets

An *R Data Set* can be added to a project by doing the following:

**Data Sets > Plus (+) > R**or**Anything > Data > Data Sets > Add**.- These data sets need to have a tabular structure.

Because you cannot preview the results from your R code when creating a variable, many times it is best to first create the code in a Calculation to confirm the results are as expected. Then copy it over to the data set R CODE.

### 4. Standard R

It is possible to do just about any form of data analysis using R by writing code. Where we think analyses are likely to be used by many of our users, we have made it available via a graphical user interface (i.e., menus and/or buttons and the like, without needing to write code). We refer to the analyses that we have made available via a graphical user interface as *Standard R*.

Note, that R code in a *Standard R* object can be further edited via **Properties > R CODE**. For example, the following pie chart was created by clicking **Visualization > Pie > Pie**, but you can view and modify the R code that creates it in **Properties > R CODE**. Note that* Standard R* references fields on the **Inputs** and **Chart** tab, so if you overwrite those settings in the code those fields will not be taken into account.

## Updating

R code is automatically re-run whenever:

- Data or outputs that are inputs into R calculations are changed (unless
**Properties > R CODE > Automatic**is un-checked in the**Object Inspector**). Examples include: a variable set used was recoded, the Data Set is updated, and a combo box used to create a filter is changed. - The R code contains instructions for updating at a specified frequency using per How to Automatically Update Calculations, Variables and Data Sets Using R or you insert
**Anything > Report > Automatic Updating**per How to Automatically Update a Page.

R code is a part of a document's dependency graph of modifications/calculations, which can impacts speed on large documents. You can review How to Optimize Speed of Displayr Documents for more information.

## Helpful highlighting

When you create R code in Displayr the code is colored and highlighted in a way to make it easier to see what items are being referenced.

*Tables*and*Calculations*will highlight in blue.*Variables*will highlight in yellow.

Hovering over the name of an input will show you a preview of the data. When referencing other variables, any categories that have been merged in the related table will flow through to R, and any that have been removed will be excluded. By clicking the *name *in the preview, Displayr will then take you to the object, for example to a **Page** where a table exists or to the **Data Sets** tree where the variable exists.

*Strings*will be colored red.*Some functions*and other*constructs*will be colored blue. You can also hover over an R function to see the relevant Help documentation.*Comments*- which are used to help document code and are not processed by R - are colored green.

## Tips for writing R Code

- R is case-sensitive so make sure you have matched the case in your referencing.
- If adding data using R or creating an R variable, try the code out in a
**Calculation**first to make sure it returns what you expect. Then copy it to your R variable. - Use # in your R code to add comments so it's easy to see what each section of code does. This will help you remember the intent of the code and will help Displayr Support team and others in your organization understand the intent if any collaboration is needed:
`#this is a comment about the following code`

x = 1 #this is also a comment about this line of code - In many instances it's useful to simply look at some of your variables/tables in the code to spot unexpected inputs or results. To do so, hover over the highlighted name in your code. For instance the code below won't return the number of people who prefer Diet Coke (coded as 1 in the data) because the data in R is the value label and not the underlying numeric value:
- When working with Calculations, check
**Properties > OUTPUT > Show raw R output**to see which exact line in your code is causing the error in your code. For example, what line of the code is actually returning the error below?

After checking Show raw R output, you'll see that the 4th line is returning the error because we have the incorrect syntax within the brackets (the [,1] is not needed in this instance because totalcoke is only one column). - Use
**Show raw R output**, to check variables and results as you are in the process of writing code to be sure your code is doing what you expect. For example, the code below calculates a ratio of coke drank per week vs the max response, but the result is showing up as missing.

By adding in a line to view what the max is, you'll see it is coming up as NA because we have forgotten to add in na.rm=T to our max() function. - Many errors and warnings are pretty generic and abstract sounding, but you can google them to see examples from other people who are receiving this error to tip you off to what may be the issue with your code. For example the "incorrect number of dimensions" error below:

gives you an idea when you google it that it doesn't fit with the structure:

## R Limitations

- When referencing default tables, R can only pull in statistics from
**Inputs > STATISTICS > Cells**. The**Right**and**Below**statistics are not recognized, but you can add the equivalent as**Cells**statistics in order to reference these. - When referencing default tables, R is unable to bring in significance results from the
**Arrows and Font colors**setting. For a workaround for this see How to Add Statistical Significance to a Table Using the Formattable R Package and How to Add Statistical Significance to AutoFit Tables. - When referencing default tables that include nested span labels, such as banner tables, R will by default only bring in the bottom-most labels. See How to Work with Nested Banners and Spans in R Tables for more information.
- When importing R data sets, R is unable to bring in variable labels as R does not have the concept of both
**Name**and**Label**. This means each variable will be labeled using the variable name. - Calculations and R data sets are by default restricted to 67MB.
- There are certain keywords used by R that you should not use as names for your variables, calculations, and data sets. Using one may conflict with some of our automations and cause unintended results. These names include: list, length, exists, assign, names, rep, any, stop, min, max, matrix, attr, sum.

## Next

Using R in Displayr Video Series

How R Works Differently in Displayr Compared to Other Programs

How to Use Different Types of Data in R

How to Use Point and Click Inside R Code

How to Reference and Distinguish between Different R Objects in Displayr

How to Import a Data Set Using R

How to Create a Custom Numeric R Variable

How to Create a Custom R Text Variable

How to Add a Custom Calculation

How to Work with Conditional R Formulas

How to Perform Mathematical Calculations Using R

How to Work with Regular Expressions Using R

How to Use R's Paste Formulas in Displayr

How to Extract Information from an R Object

How to Work with Nested Banners and Spans in R Tables

How to Troubleshoot R Code in Displayr

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